Theories of Child Development Essay
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Theories abound around how people develop emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually. This essay will examine the theories of five leaders on the subject of development.
Jean Piaget believed in four stages of development that were fairly concrete in description (Atherton, 2010).
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years old) – Children begin to make sense of the world around them based on their interaction with their physical environment. Reality begins to be defined.
2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) – Concrete physical stimuli are needed in order for a child to develop new concepts.
3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11) – As a child accumulates experience with the physical world, he/she begins to conceptualize to explain…show more content…
“An essential feature of learning is that it awakens a variety of internal developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is in the action of interacting with people in his environment and in cooperation with his peers” (2004). Erik Erikson like Piaget had distinct stages of development assigned to specific ages. However Erikson ascribed development even into old age. Eight stages beginning with birth to old age described a conflict that had to be resolved by the person before moving on to the next, termed the epigenetic principle (Boeree, 2006). As each conflict is resolved a person gains strength to move on to a more complex battle. These struggles are inner conflicts revolving around Freud’s theories of ego, i.e. the first stage, birth to age one, trust vs mistrust is the conflict or stage eight, age 50 and beyond, integrity vs despair. As a situation arises a person has two ways of resolution, adaptive or maladaptive (Cramer, Flynn, & LaFave, 1997). This conflict must be mastered before progressing. Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of the development of moral reasoning is laid out in seven stages, within three levels, preconventional, conventional and principled morality. The first stage being primitive reasoning (fear of punishment) moving to stage seven transcendental morality, one that uses religion to judge
Show MoreLifespan development can be defined as the length of time an individual has from birth to death. Life span development explores all the biological, cognitive, psychosocial changes that occur during different times of a person s life (ukask.com 2013).one of these theories. This assignment will be discussing and evaluating two theories and 4 theorists that have studied and written about lifespan development.
One of these is Cognitive development which the building blocks of thought processes together with remembering, problem solving along with decision making from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Two theorists who wrote about cognitive development are Piaget and vgyotsky.Piaget separated development in four stages: sensor…show more content…
Erikson called his hypothesis criteria crisis stages, Freud called his psychosexual stages.
Freud`s first stage is oral and covered from birth to 1 year. It is based on feeding, crying, and weaning. The mouth and breast are at the centre of all experience, together with attachment throughout this stage. In any problems with this stage could lead to problem with oral fixation in later life such as thumb sucking and smoking. (Simplypsychology.com 2013). Erikson’s first stage is named trust vs. Mistrust and starts from birth to the age of one, during this stage we start to develop trust and continue doing so throughout life. The care an infant receives determines how the child will view its mother and other individuals. However if care is inconsistent it could instigate a sense of mistrust, fear and suspicion which can lead to a child becoming withdrawn. A sense of trust allows the baby to accept new experiences; the fear of the unknown is recognised as being a part of life (gross 1993). The second stage of is the anal stage; this runs from between the age of 1-2 years. Freud believed during this time the primary focus of the libido was on controlling the bladder, bowel movement. The conflict during this stage is toilet training, because an infant has to learn to control their own bodily needs. In developing this helps lead to a sense of independence and accomplishment. Freud stated this stage of development is very