As a parent, teacher or early childhood professional, your job is to teach new skills that will move your child forward in their development and independence. You also teach new skills to reduce frustration, promote self-esteem, and to replace behaviour that may not be the most acceptable. An example of this is the child who screams in order to get help from a caregiver when asked to put on his shoes. This child may need to be taught either to ask for help, or to actually learn the skill of tying shoe laces.
What is the best way to teach these new skills? While all children are not the same, we know that many children need support in the following areas when learning a new skill:
- Organizing the steps
- Sequencing the steps
- Mastering the steps
- Gaining motivation to master the steps
- Generalizing the new skill to new people, places, and conditions
Organization and Sequencing through Task Analysis
Though some children quickly learn skills through observing and imitating others, many children need the new skill broken to be down into smaller steps and to be allowed time to master each step in the sequence. The breaking down of complex skills into smaller components is called Task Analysis. Anything we do can be broken down into smaller steps. The number of steps depends on the needs of the child.
Let’s look at an example. At lunch time, Simithy doesn’t like to wait for you to serve the other children and then spoon feed her. She often cries and throws her bowl. You decide that it would be helpful to teach her to use a spoon to feed herself. A task analysis is completed and five steps in the spoon-feeding chain are identified.
- pick up the spoon
- put spoon into the food in the bowl
- scoop food onto the spoon
- lift spoonful of food from the bowl
- put the food into the mouth
Five steps may be perfect for Simithy, but if she has some motor difficulties, she might need much smaller steps. For example:
- reach for the spoon
- grasp the spoon
- pick up the spoon, etc.
The way to find out how many steps are needed is to first break the skill you want to teach into smaller steps. Next, test your list with your child to see what steps he already can do and which may be too big a leap. You don’t need to worry about teaching the steps he already knows. The steps that are really difficult for him, may need to be broken down further.
Once you have a task breakdown that is workable and yet flexible enough to change as you get a better sense of your child’s learning style, then you are almost ready to get started. First you’ll want to learn more about a couple of proven teaching techniques such as Chaining and Shaping.
A Level Product Design
Product Design Year 12
This course offers the Students the opportunity to study, propose and realise prototype solutions which are closely linked to the real world of product manufacture in a range of different material areas. The students develop their knowledge of materials and manufacturing processes as well as being able to initiate design solutions and testing models and prototypes. The AS consists of two units which is 50% of the Advanced GCE. The Advanced Innovation Challenge is a design challenge set by the exam board which assess the student’s ability to design and model a product within a given time, this demonstrates the student’s ability to be innovative, creative and original. The Product Study is a coursework unit which consists of product development, modelling and testing. The students carry out an in depth product analysis resulting in suggestions for improvements.
Product Design Year 13
This course is a progression of the knowledge, skills and experiences gained during the AS programme. The course focuses on the completion of a challenging design and make assignment, within the guidelines set by the exam board. The deadline for completion is Easter, after which final preparation for the summer exam begins.
GCSE Design And Technology
Electronic Products Year 10
Students in Year 10 design and make a progressive range of projects. This includes a light sensing circuit, a child’s toy and an electronic dice. Short-term project milestones will be issued to ensure the accompanying project design folder is kept up to date. Over the year the pupils will also have theory lessons and class notes in preparation for the written examination.
Electronic Products Year 11
The first two terms of this course focus on completion of the students’ GCSE Design and Make coursework. This will require the designing element to be completed by the end of the autumn term and the practical piece to be submitted by the end of the spring term for final assessment. The marks for this component are worth 60% of their final grade. Theory work will also be undertaken in preparation for the summer written examination.
GCSE Graphic Products
DT: Graphics Year 10
Students in Year 10 design and make a progressive range of projects. This includes card mechanisms, CD covers and inlays and a 3D product model. The projects will also incorporate packaging and point-of-sale display work. Short-term project milestones will be issued to ensure the accompanying project design folder is kept up to date. Over the year students will also have theory lessons and class notes in preparation for the written examination.
DT: Graphics Year 11
The first two terms of this course focus on completion of the students’ GCSE Design and Make coursework. This requires the designing element to be completed by the end of the autumn term and the practical piece to be submitted by the end of the spring term for final assessment. The marks for this component are worth 60% of their final grade. Theory work will also be undertaken in preparation for the summer written examination.
GCSE Resistant Materials
Resistant Materials Year 10
Students in year 10 design and make a progressive range of projects. This is a ‘hands on’ course during which students gain experience in working with woods, metals and plastics. Short-term project milestones will be issued to ensure the accompanying project design folder is kept up to date. Over the year students will also have theory lessons and class notes in preparation for the written examination.
Resistant Materials Year 11
The first two terms of this course focus on completion of the students’ GCSE Design and Make coursework. This will require the designing element to be complete by the end of the autumn term and the practical piece to be submitted by the end of the spring term for final assessment. The marks for this component are worth 60% of their final grade. Theory work will also be undertaken in preparation for the summer written examination.
Key Stage 3 Construction
Year 7 Construction
In Construction the students develop both their graphical and practical skills. The graphics element develops the students’ rendering skills and they also learn how to produce pictorial and exploded drawings. Within the practical element the students will use a variety of tools and machinery to produce a steady hand tester, which also involves the students making their own PCB board.
Year 8 Construction
The students in Construction design and make a mechanical toy. This involves the accurate cutting of a lap joint and wood working assembly. The students also learn about the different types of motion along with the cutting and fitting of a cam mechanism. Using the design process, students design from scratch the moving toy element of the project. All planning and design work is recorded in a design folder.
Year 9 Construction
Students in Construction will design and make a maze game. This will involve the accurate cutting of finger joints and wood working assembly. Students will be involved in the different ways that plastics are processed and finished. They will also design and make the tooling for a vacuum forming mould. All planning and design work will be recorded in the design folder.
A Level Food Technology
Food Technology Year 12
The students develop their knowledge of food science, nutrition and food safety through theory, experimental and practical design work. Students cook most weeks. They learn about macro and micro nutrients, the relationship between diet and health, social factors affecting food choice, dietary needs of individuals at different life-stages, food additives, environmental factors such as genetic modification and organic foods, food safety and hygiene and food labelling. Knowledge and skills are applied through portfolio coursework worth 50% of the marks. Assessment: Unit 1: Written examination: 2 hrs duration, worth 50% of total marks. Unit 2: Coursework portfolio (2 sections of work).
Food Technology Year 13
The students have further developed their knowledge of food science, nutrition and food safety through theory, experimental and practical design work. They are developing a greater awareness of wider issues such as organic foods, environmental issues and the debate around GM foods. Their knowledge and skills are applied through a detailed investigation of a manufactured food, and through a major piece of coursework based on their own choice of design context. Assessment: Coursework 60%; Examination 40%
GCSE Food Technology
Food Technology Year 10
During Year 10, students develop a more detailed knowledge of food safety, including industrial risk assessment processes such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point). Topics include:
- Healthy nutrition for short-term and long-term benefits
- The study and practical use of food commodities such as cereals, fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, dairy foods and alternative proteins
- The ways in which the composition of food gives its working properties e.g. to thicken, to set, to aerate. Market research methods.
- Advertising. Food packaging and labelling law.
Students further develop their knowledge and skills by making a wide range of recipes including bread, pastries, biscuits, cakes, sauces and savoury dishes. Throughout the course, pupils gain an insight into how food is designed, produced, tested and marketed on a larger scale, such as food factories and supermarkets.
Food Technology Year 11 During Year 11, students complete their design and make coursework portfolio (worth 60% of total marks). They complete the GCSE specification, revise key subject topics and practise answering past examination questions in preparation for the final examination. Key subject areas include:
- Nutritional needs for specific needs
- Processing of foods
- Properties and characteristics of food
- Combining and processing foods
- Finishing processes
- Food preparation and manufacture
- Food quality and safety: Using CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) in food production.
Key Stage 3 Food Technology
For Design and Technology (D&T) in Years 7 – 9 students spend one term per year in Construction, Food Technology and Textiles.
Year 7 Food Technology
In Food Technology, there is an emphasis on healthy eating, focussing on the benefits of eating plenty of fruit and vegetables. Students follow the Licence to Cook scheme, making fruit salad, Danish open sandwich, soup, flapjack, sweet and savoury muffins, sweet or savoury scones and shortbread. The students learn about food hygiene and safety, use of cooker and shopping skills.
Year 8 Food Technology
In Food Technology there is a continued emphasis on healthy eating. Students use ICT to model their own sauce recipe designs, to meet the current nutritional guidelines on energy balance. Assessment is based on each student’s ability to develop and communicate their ideas through A3 design sheets, as well as on the skills and knowledge shown in their practical work.
Year 9 Food Technology
In Food Technology, students focus on the nutritional needs of teenagers. They learn about energy balance, the prevention of obesity and the importance of regular exercise. They examine the importance of reducing sugar, and the need to include iron rich foods in their diets. Students are introduced to Indian and Chinese cooking. Practical work is based on healthier option recipes. For the assessed ‘design and make’ task, students select a recipe from a named culture and make adaptations to make it healthier.
A Level Fashion & Textiles
Fashion & Textiles Year 12
The AQA Product design Textiles AS course aims are:
- To allow the opportunity to gain personal satisfaction and positive experience working with a variety of materials.
- To apply knowledge and understanding through designing and making.
- To show through communication quality of written work.
There are two assessed elements,
- Unit 1(50%) the written paper, consists of Materials and Components and processes and manufacture , industrial and commercial practices, pattern drafting, manufacture and the environment, design in practice and design in the human context this is taught mainly through theory and investigation.
- Unit 2 (50%) design and make coursework project of the students own choice, also includes elements of processes and manufacture, done through the portfolio approach.
Textiles Year 13
Year 13- AQA Product Design Textiles A2. The second year of study aims to build on the knowledge of the AS course and show through the assessed modules an increased understanding of the knowledge and higher levels of skill. Students will work on units 3 , 4 and 5 and continue to build up understanding of the subject through theory and practice exam questions. Assessment is 50% of AS added to: –
Unit 3 the final synoptic 2 hour written paper based on both years’ theory work.
Unit 4, (25hours) Product Study Investigation into the topic of the student’s choice
Unit 5, (60 hours of supervised time plus homework) the major design and make project
GCSE Fashion & Textiles
Textiles Year 10 Edexcel 1971
During Year 10 students explore a range of techniques and processes that prepare them for their coursework design and make task. Mini design and make projects in year 10 include: sugar skulls with electro textiles, design and make a little black dress, sock monsters and laser cut decorations. Students also explore fibre and fabrics, industrial textile manufacture and social, environmental and ethical textiles. Students learn theory through practical exploration such as, felt making, knitting and weaving. A batch production challenge is also undertaken in Year 10 to illustrate how high street products are manufactured. Controlled coursework begins in the spring term of Year 10 and this accounts for 60% of the GCSE textile grade. Students are able to select a brief that are set by Edexcel, we encourage interpretation, creativity and originality.
Textiles Year 11 Edexcel 1971
A major part of Year 11 is the completion of coursework that accounts for 60% of the final GCSE textile grade. Students spend 20 hours on the making of their product and they are encouraged to come in and work during activity times and agreed afterschool slots. Once coursework is completed students begin revision and consolidation of theoretical work covered in Year 10 and Year 11. Students are also given revision strategies and focused guidance on exam technique to prepare for the summer examination.
Key Stage 3 Textiles
In Design and Technology in Years 7 – 9 students spend one term per year in Construction, Food Technology and Textiles.
Students learn how to confidently and safely use a sewing machine to create seams, applique and machine embroidery. They use these skills to design an original, scary and cuddly monster product that they develop and then make their final design. Students are also taught how to sew on buttons and hand embroidery and they learn about the characteristics of cotton, felt, fleece and fake fur.
Using the theme of Hawaii students design and make a pair of Hawaiian shorts. All students explore resist dye techniques; tie and dye and batik they evaluate their samples and select one or a combination to make their shorts. From 1 metre of cotton students decorate and make a pair of shorts. In addition to this students research the environmental and ethical issues surrounding cotton production and they use this to support their understanding of natural fibres. To celebrate the completion of their products students hold a fashion show where they get to model their shorts and create dance routines to reflect the theme.
Sustainable textiles forms the overarching theme for Year 9 textiles and students are encouraged to learn and experience how textiles can be made to be more sustainable. To begin with in small teams students are challenged to research and present a concise seminar on an allocated sustainable brief. Students then research upcycling and design and make an upcycled screen printed T-shirt. The second sustainable brief is to design and make a pencil case using vintage fabrics and decorate their design with digital printing, applique and hand embroidery. Each pencil case must have a fully functioning zip sewn into it. Students then use odd socks to make sock monsters while also researching the characteristics of knitted fabrics to support their understanding of fabrics. The final design and make task is to design and make novelty hats.