- Front Matter
- Section 1 Preparing an Article for Publication
- 1 Types of Articles
- 2 Manuscript Preparation
- 3 References
- 4 Visual Presentation of Data
- 5 Ethical and Legal Considerations
- 5.1 Authorship Responsibility
- 5.2 Acknowledgments
- 5.3 Duplicate Publication
- 5.4 Scientific Misconduct
- 5.5 Conflicts of Interest
- 5.6 Intellectual Property: Ownership, Access, Rights, and Management
- 5.7 Confidentiality
- 5.8 Protecting Research Participants' and Patients' Rights in Scientific Publication
- 5.9 Defamation, Libel
- 5.10 Editorial Freedom and Integrity
- 5.11 Editorial Responsibilities, Roles, Procedures, and Policies
- 5.12 Advertisements, Advertorials, Sponsorship, Supplements, Reprints, and E-prints
- 5.13 Release of Information to the Public and Journal/Author Relations With the News Media
- 6 Editorial Assessment and Processing
- Section 2 Style
- 7 Grammar
- 8 Punctuation
- 9 Plurals
- 10 Capitalization
- 10.1 First Word of Sentences, Statements, Quotations, Titles, Subtitles, and Table Headings
- 10.2 Titles and Headings
- 10.3 Proper Nouns
- 10.4 Designators
- 10.5 Types and Sections of Articles
- 10.6 Acronyms and Initialisms
- 10.7 Capitalized Computer Terms
- 10.8 “Intercapped” Compounds
- 11 Correct and Preferred Usage
AMA (American Medical Association) Reference Citation Format
This tip sheet contains most frequently requested information. For complete style manual online see: AMA Manual of Style Online
or the print American Medical Association Manual of Style 10th Edition on Reserve in the Health Sciences Library, Call # WZ 345 A511 2007.
- Cited works are numbered in order of initial appearance in the text, and appear in the Reference List in numerical order.
- Use arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.
- Authors’ names are inverted, and use only initials for first and middle names. No periods between initials.
- In article titles only the first word and proper nouns and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized are capitalized.
- Use accepted Index Medicus abbreviations of journal names (see the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus).
- For journals use issue numbers in parentheses after the volume number. If there is no issue number specify month before the year.
Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk of foot ulcers.1-3
Several interventions have been successful at increasing compliance.11,14-16
The data of Smith et al18 is further evidence of this effect.
As reported previously,1,3-6
The results were as follows4:
Reference List Examples:
Journal article (1-6 authors):