The American Dream is widely considered to be the most Important national ethos of the United States of America. The ideology of the American Dream is that the basic rights of freedom and liberty in the US Include the opportunity for everyone In the land to achieve prosperity, success and upward social mobility through hard work and determination. It Is centered on the right of Individuals to determine their own destiny, regardless of their circumstances of birth.
However, this is only a broad definition, as the American Dream itself is intangible, and takes on its own unique meaning for each individual throughout various time periods in the history of the United States of America. Though the historian James Torturous Adams is credited with coining the phrase “the American dream” in his book Epic America (1931), the origin of the Dream itself is ingrained in the earliest days of American settlement. The Puritans, who had been persecuted for their belief system in their native Britain, fled to the New World throughout the seventeenth century, In search of a new beginning.
In 1630, John Winthrop delivered his renowned “city upon the hill” sermon to his fellow Puritan looniest as they made their way to the area now known as Massachusetts. While he never specifically used the word “dream” In this Iconic address, he did eloquently detail his vision for this new colony, built on the hope that everyone would have the opportunity to prosper, which had been denied to them in their homeland for generations. Gradually, this vision of opportunity evolved in the minds of the settlers to become a God-given right, and exists today as the American Dream.
The importance of the American Dream as a national ethos is highlighted through illusions to it in the Declaration of Independence, which formed the basis for the united States of America as a nation. In it, the Founding Fathers of America, Including the likes of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams, clearly stated that “all men are created equal”, and are entitled to the rights of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”. Another Important aspect of life In the US that Is clearly raised in the Declaration of Independence is that of democracy, and the opportunity to exercise free will.
This freedom of choice highlights the decision that individuals just make in chasing their own American Dream, and how they perceive their own degree of success in the quest of fulfilling the Dream. Like the Puritans and their hopes for a new life in a far away land, people’s perceptions of the American Dream are often influenced by the era that they live in, and major occurrences that occur during that time period. During the American Civil War, the country almost experienced the subversion of the Dream, as unrest resonated right from the heart of the nation.
Louisa May Alcott novel Little Women (1 868 – 69) highlights the hardships faced by American society during the war, but also the hope that the American Dream provided. In Its aftermath, the members of the union, specifically the African Americans, saw their American Dream start to saw the death of their Dream. During the Great Depression of the sass’s, the American Dream for most became the desire to look after their family, and to try to ensure that the next generation did not have to suffer the same fate. With this dream in sight, optimism grew in a land of desperation.
The westward expansion of the frontier during the 19th century was a fascinating period for the changing nature of he American Dream. It seemed that the Puritan’s desire for a new beginning was reflected in their descendants, with masses of the population taking the chance to start over in a new area of land. The reasons for this migration included the promise of economic prosperity, to obtain complete possession of the continent, and to protect the freedom of America. For many, westward migration meant fulfilling their dreams of land ownership and farming.
In 1845, the Journalist John Sullivan put a name to these ideas that lured pioneers toward the western frontier; “the manifest Sistine’. The western frontier offered a new opportunity for Americans to pursue the independence and upward social mobility that are linked so closely to the roots of the American Dream. The MGM picture How the West Was Won (1962) is an example of the success of a family who migrated to the West, across a number of generations. The discovery of gold in California in 1849 led too boom in population in the state, with men looking for instant success and wealth.
This led to the birth of the California Dream, appropriated from the widespread ideology of the American Dream, with a focus on the idea of almost instantaneous economic success that is promised through migration to the state. Though the gold rush is over, this California Dream still exists, through fields such as film production and “dot-com” entrepreneurship. The achievements of Mark Seersucker, recounted through the film The Social Network (2010), support this appropriation, as it highlights how the environment in California, specifically Silicon Valley, has enabled people to achieve their dreams, in a short period of time.
In the aftermath of the World War II, when the US had successfully established itself s a superpower, the American Dream took on a more materialistic identity for the vast majority of society. The sass’s and ass’s saw a rise in consumerism, and people took on a more individualistic approach to life than their predecessors. Home ownership became the signpost of an individual’s success in the pursuit of the American Dream. After the Cold War, Russian citizens found themselves enchanted with this particular ideology of the American Dream seeking freedom, liberty, material prosperity and private ownership of land in their own nation.
Australia has en influenced by the American, with the Great Australian Dream encompassing a similar ethos to its American counterpart, in regards to home ownership. This trend has carried on throughout modern history, with the American Dream now becoming most commonly associated with material prosperity. Many immigrants, often from developing nations, flock to the United States in pursuit of this materialistic American Dream, with the promise of economic prosperity enticing them away from their native countries of origin. The American Dream is still a prominent aspect of life in the United States.
An essay by Gavin Finley MD
JOHN WINTHROP AND THE PURITAN DREAM OF A
SHINING 'CITY UPON A HILL'. THIS VISION OF A
JUST AND PIOUS 'NATION UNDER GOD' IS STILL
A MAJOR DRIVING SPIRIT IN AMERICA TODAY.
Whether we like it or not, the fact is that God is an important part of American life. This has been the case since the nation's early beginnings. As we proceed in this study it will become clear that there is a good historical reason for this. The Anglo-American Puritans, along with their separatist friends, the Pilgrims, have had a profound influence on America in times past.
The thesis of this series of articles is that in a spiritual sense the Puritans, (and the Pilgrims as well), are still around. In fact today's Puritans continue to be a major driving force in American society. Nowadays they go by another name. We call them the 'Christian Right'.
The Puritan heart desire, mindset and motivation is not hard to understand. The dream and vision is for a just and godly nation. This same heart desire, idea and motivation has been seen repeatedly in American politics. The Puritan voices we hear in America today come from activists still voicing their concerns from church pulpits, Christian media, and the halls of government.
Many American Christians, particularly the evangelicals and fundamentalists, are very concerned about the moral decline in America today. They are vexed about the clear facts that the nation seems to be drifting into paganism and 'secular humanism'.
We have heard these same concerns expressed before. These same dreams for a godly society, and a prosperous and successful one, were in evidence 400 years ago. They were voiced by the English and American Puritans of centuries past.
John Winthrop was a prominent early Puritan minister. He was one of 20,000 who came to America between 1620 and 1640. He clearly laid out the Puritan agenda in his memorable exhortation to the Puritans in 1630. As they prepared to sail out on their voyage to the New World he charged the early colonists with these words,
"....we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill,This "City upon a hill" was not the 'Holy City' the Children of Abraham and those friends of the Puritans, the Pilgrims, were seeking. It was not the future New Jerusalem John saw coming down from heaven and fully revealed in its ultimate glory. (Rev.21) But the American Dream was certainly tapping into the energy of that sublime vision of a perfect society. The shining city they saw was nothing less than a reflection and an image of the Holy City of God.
(and that) the eyes of all people are upon us.."
John Winthrop (1606-1676) was one of those early English Puritans who set sail for the New World. He was a wealthy landowner who provided valuable leadership in the early days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He served as governor for much of its early history.
Unlike the Pilgrims, Winthrop and the other Puritans who traveled to Massachusetts were not separatists. The Puritan heart back in those former times 400 years ago, as today, was to stay with the system, to work with it, and and change it from within. Rather than trying to flee the corruptions of a wicked world the Puritans had another plan for the English colonies in the New World. They hoped to establish in New England a pure church that would offer a model for the churches in England. This, they believed, would redeem and reform their English society on both continents, and turn things around for the better. In this selection we see below, John Winthrop offers religious and economic arguments in support of moving to New England.
As we weigh the words spoken by this early Puritan leader we can readily perceive that these people were not merely a company of demoralized refugees exiting from the harsh politico-religious realities of Europe. To be sure these were people in deep spiritual agony of soul. But out of this 'angst' would come a new chapter in history. It would be a new manifestation of Israel's 'Church in the Wilderness' (Acts 7:38). And out of that travail a new nation would be born.
The New World would become more than just a Puritan retreat or stronghold. This was an entirely new land. And it was situated an ocean away from their former miseries. Their new congregational church would be the life spring of a new English colonial society. The English colonies in the new World would then provide comfort and many new opportunities for other settlers who were now beginning to arrive. Their new Christian society would also provide a wonderful way station for their fellow Christians, the Pilgrims. And those other fellow travelers, yes even the 'strangers', those godless freethinkers, would be blessed as well. Secular humanists would have more wealth and freedom to please themselves living in a society alongside Biblical Christians than they would in a nation given to state ordained secularism such as France. A comparitive study of the French Revolution vs. American Revolution makes that fact abundantly clear.
The Puritans would be blessed in America. Their new nation would become established. And it would grow. Eventually, during the latter half of the 20th Century, it would become the lone superpower . As such it would become the strong voice and long arm of Western Christendom at the end of the age.
Those friends of the Puritans, the Pilgrim separatists, would be greatly blessed by their association with the Puritans. The Pilgrims would be greatly assisted in America in their evangelistic work. The Puritans and the Pilgrims would join together in a common cause. The Gospel would be preached, God's Word would be taught, and Christian missionaries would be sent out to the ends of the earth.
But there is more to this story than we know. At the climax of the age future Pilgrims will be shown great lovingkindness. They will be given inestimable assistance by America when the trials come at the end of this age. (Rev.12:14)
Nearly 400 years have now passed since the Puritans and Pilgrims set sail for the New World. Here in this passage below John Winthrop gives the reasons and the purpose for their epic and historic migration.
'REASONS FOR THE PURITAN MIGRATION' 1. It will be a service to the Church of great consequence to carry the Gospel into those parts of the world...& to raise a Bulwark against the kingdom of AntiChrist w[hi]ch the Jesuits labour to reare up in those parts.
BY JOHN WINTHROP (1606-1676)
2. All other churches of Europe are brought to desolation, & o[u]r sins, for w[hi]ch the Lord begins already to frown upon us & to cut us short, do threaten evil times to be coming upon us, & who knows, but that God hath provided this place to be a refuge for many whom he means to save out of the general calamity, & seeing the Church hath no place left to fly into but the wilderness, what better work can there be, then to go & provide tabernacles & food for her against she comes thither:
3. This Land grows weary of her Inhabitants, so as man, who is the most precious of all creatures, is here more vile & base then the earth we tread upon, & of less price among us then an horse or a sheep: masters are forced by authority to entertain servants, parents to maintain there own children, all towns complain of the burthen of their poore, though we have taken up many unnecessary yea unlawful trades to maintain them, & we use the authority of the Law to hinder the increase of o[u]r people....
4. The whole earth is the Lords garden & he hath given it to the Sons of men w[i]th a gen[era]l Commission: Gen: 1:28: increase & multiply, & replenish the earth & subdue it,...why then should we stand striving here for places of habitation...& in the meane time suffer a whole Continent as fruitful & convenient for the use of man to lie waste w[i]thout any improvement?
5...all arts & Trades are carried in that deceitful & unrighteous course, as it is almost impossible for a good & upright man to maintain his charge & live comfortably in any of them.
6. The fountaine of Learning & Religion are so corrupted as...most children (even the best wittes & of fairest hopes) are perverted, corrupted, & utterly overthrown by the multitude of evil examples....
R.C. Winthrop, Life and Letters of John Winthrop (Boston, 1864), I, 309-311
Here below is a YouTube video with some more modern perspectives on the dream of a "City upon a hill".
Here is the NEXT ARTICLE.