Essay About Maranaos

Now that martial law has been declared in Mindanao, it's best to have a better grip of the situation and how we as a nation can help our fellow Filipinos. It is important to understand that any kind of help we give, whether we are fellow Mindanaoans or from Luzon or Visayas, will reflect on us and how we see our affected brothers and sisters in Lanao del Sur.

Did you know that the city of Marawi is home to the Maranaos, who speak the Maranao language? The Maranaos are a kind, generous, fiercely loyal, and proud people. They live in relative peace with non-Maranaos and locals can speak any of the following languages: Maranao, Filipino, Cebuano, English, and Arabic.

A basic understanding of Mindanao geography and logistics will help guide as we endeavor to help.

1| Marawi City, with a population of 201,785, is located in the province known as Lanao del Sur.

The airport closest to it is called Laguindingan Airport, which can be found under the Cagayan de Oro flight option. Cagayan de Oro, in the province of Misamis Oriental, is an hour and a half by plane from the airport of Manila. Laguindingan, also in Misamis Oriental, is located 47 kilometers from Cagayan de Oro and 57 kilometers from Iligan City. The military now uses the old Lumbia Airport called Lumbia Air Base, located in Cagayan de Oro.

Going from Laguindingan to Iligan City will take another hour and a half via land. Traveling from Iligan City to Marawi City will take another 45 minutes to one hour, under normal conditions.

All these time figures do not take into account the checkpoints found along the way as getting in and out of all these cities is via one major highway. This highway has many road works, constructions, and checkpoints (even before Martial Law was declared) so travel time is much longer than usual.

2| This means that any physical help you send via an NGO, an organization, or a volunteer will have enormous logistical concerns.

If you send help via DSWD and other official government channels, they will avail of the C130 or cargo military plane which lands in Lumbia. Estimate the travel time from there to Iligan to at least two to three hours, minimum.

If your aid is coming in via commercial planes, expect that Laguindingan airport will be congested as well.

Option to send help via flatbed trucks and container vans like what was done for Super Typhoon Yolanda will not be optimal as this is Mindanao.

3| Unlike helping others during disaster relief, the Marawi crisis is different because of the warfare element and the need to subdue the rebels. For example, Iligan City has implemented curfew for all ages as a security measure. It is the closest big city to Marawi and home to various evacuation sites.

The military and police checkpoints will inspect all sorts of containers: as grocery-looking bags could actually be used to smuggle in arms and reinforcements for the rebels, too.

4| The checkpoints will require whoever passing through to present proof of either residence or purpose in the area. Residents will automatically have identification that categorize them as being from the area. The authorities just want to ensure that the rebels aren't trying to blend in with the locals, hence these strict measures.

5| Maranaos are clannish and the discrepancies in the figures of internally displaced persons (IDPs) is because not all who evacuated and fled Marawi City, including the biggest campus in Mindanao, MSU-Marawi City, are in evacuation sites. Home-based IDPs means those who sought refuge with their families and relatives based around Lanao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, and Misamis Oriental.

There are a total of 24 evacuation centers and as of May 27, 5 p.m., the figures are: 6,288 families or 30,602 individuals in these centers. The home-based IDPs number 2,308 families or 11,540 individuals. This brings the total to 7,088 families or 42,142 individuals as of May 27.

But according to Ruben Carranza from the ARMM, as of this morning, the number of internally displaced is at 69,853.

Factual reporting and statistics take time and movement is expected. Also, the displaced faculty, staff, and students from MSU-Marawi City campus either have friends or family in the closest cities. This is where they first tried to go for safe haven.

6| Several displaced individuals left the war zone in literally just the clothes off their back. The hotline numbers below will generally ask for basic clothes, medicines, and food. Remember, many of those in need of food are Muslims so Halal food, whether canned or packed is recommended.

Water is also a big need aside from hygiene kits, diapers, veils, malong, prayer mats to name a few.

Be sensitive and only give what you yourself would use or wear.

7| The ARMM released hotlines for stranded and missing persons in Marawi City.

The numbers to call are 0995-496-9122, 0995-496-9123, and 0939-529-6030. Exact known last location, names of the stranded or missing persons, and their last known contact number should be provided to this number. The evacuation sites under their control are those located in Saguiaran, Pantar, and Baloi (all are municipalities before reaching Marawi City coming from the direction of Iligan City).

8| The Local Government of Marawi City has provided the following hotlines for medical, food, and transportation assistance, in-kind and cash donations: 0955-769-4404, 0915-972-4348, and 0930-009-1401. They are currently holding satellite office in Iligan City at #12 Guillermo Guevarra Street in Camague, near Mercy Community Hospital in Iligan City.

9| Muslims around the world have just started their annual Ramadan fast on May 27, 2017. That means, by daybreak of Saturday, May 27, they started to refrain from eating and drinking, as they proceed with their regular five daily prayers. They will recite the Quran right before sunset as they start to break their fast with iftar.

This evening meal, when Muslims end their daily Ramadan fast at sunset, is another way that volunteers around the area have supported the displaced citizens. Normally, a Maranao family will start preparing their iftar well before sunset so that by then, the breaking of the fast can begin. It is a family-affair and something that everyone looks forward to.

Because of what has happened, these families cannot observe their nightly iftar. Some groups have started preparing the iftar and sending it over to the evacuation sites.

10| This is important: before sending or engaging in any kind of help, verify the people asking for it and try to see if they are official and transparent with the help they get. With the hotlines above, they will also be able to answer all inquiries for volunteers in any capacity as they need all the help they can get. Also, because of security concerns, getting in and out of evacuation centers will have layers of security so official coordination is recommended.

11| The Department of Health-ARMM through its Secretary Jojo Sinolinding has also issued a call to all doctors, Rural Health Physicians, Municipal Health Officers, and other Rural Health Unit personnel directing them to report immediately to their Provincial Health Office Dr. Alinader Minalang or Asst. Provincial Health Office Dra. Shalimar Sani-Rakiin to form part of disaster medical teams for deployment across affected areas and evacuation sites.

As the terrorist Maute group continues its clash with the military within Marawi City, its residents struggle with the chaos that has disrupted their lives. Instead of helplessy looking on, you can take steps in helping them weather the crisis. Here is a list of organizations which provide relief to Marawi: 

Kaya Natin! Movement for Good Governance and Ethical Leadership

To donate food packs, hygiene kits, medicine, batteries, visit:

Address: Kaliraya Street, Doña Josefa, Quezon City.

Tel: (02) 711-9302 and (02) 256-1446.

Email: [email protected]

For cash donations:


Bank: Bank of the Philippine Islands

Account Number: 3081 1163 84

Tulong Kabataan

The volunteer network, comprised of student councils and youth organizations ask for the following donations.

Food: ready-to-eat, no canned goods (no batchoy flavor for any of the donations), bottled water, non-perishable goods

Non-food items: hijabs, blankets, fully covered clothing, toiletries, sanitary napkins, medicine, first aid kits

Tentative drop-off points:

CASSC Office, College of Arts and Sciences, UP Manila

Office of the Student Regent, Vinzons Hall, UP Diliman

Room 19E, One Burgundy Residences, Katipunan Avenue

UPLB USC Office, Room 10, Student Union Building, UP Los Baños

Contact details:

Marvin Santiago – 0917 794 3055

Adrian Puse (KPL) – 0916 226 6436

Pat Cierva (UPM) – 0935 295 0875

Lee Jann Abes (UPM) – 0916 722 0210

Sam Vizcarra (UPD) – 0917 542 0918

Mackie Valenzuela (UPLB) – 0905 208 4934

To donate cash:

Account Name: College Editors Guild of the Philippines

Bank: Philippine Postal Savings Bank

Account #: 0001-003036-211

Student Council Alliance of the Philippines

To donate cash:

Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI)

Current Acct. No: 9331013363

Account Name: Xavier University

Branch: CDO-Divisoria Branch

Please specify that your donation is for the donation drive of Xavier University Central Student Government. Email the deposit slip to [email protected] for accounting purposes.

Contact details:

[email protected]

Francis +63932 228 4155

Isaac +63908 315 1257

Chevening Alumni Foundation of the Philippines


Account Number: 3351-01126-6

Bank: Philippine National Bank (PNB)

Branch: Makati C. Palanca Branch

Ateneo de Naga University

To donate halal food and non-food items (hijab, blankets, fully covered clothes, toiletries, sanitary napkins, medicine, and first aid kits) visit:

Address: donation booth at AdNU-SSG Office, 2nd Floor of Xavier Hall.

Contact: Bianca Melanie Medenilla Montero - 0977 200 2536

Adnu-Ssg Kasurog - 0927 517 3369

Tabang Sibilyan - Visayas

To donate water, halal food packs, raw materials for the community kitchen, hygiene kits and clothing, visit:

Temporary address: Conference Room, Room 202, JRDC Building, Osmena Boulevard, Cebu City.

Tel: 0908 900 1678

UP Mindanao Student Council

To drop off relief goods, go to the UP Mindanao atrium.


Wolfe Ote (USC Councilor for Committee Service) - 09758689437

Romen Wabina (USC Chairperson) - 09323283815.

Teach Peace Build Peace Movement

TPBPM, CLP and YGOAL aim to help affected children in Marawi. Please donate stuffed toys (except pigs), art supplies (sketchpads, pencils and crayons), and hygiene kits (soap, shampoo, toothpaste, toothbrush, sanitary napkins).

Contact: 09158480230 (Ate Badet)

Email: [email protected]

Drop-off locations:


ADDRESS: 55 Esteban Abada St., Brgy. Loyola Hts. Quezon City

Contact Number: 0915840230, (Bernadette Fernandez)


ADDRESS: Unit 207 Robelle Hotel 877 JP Rizal St, Makati City

Contact Number: 09954487661, JR Demecais

For cash donations:

Account Name: Teach Peace Build Peace Movement Inc.

Account Number: 000040837270

Bank: BDO

Branch: SM Makati





It is quite unfortunate that the bloghost BLOGSOME.COM closed shop a couple of years ago and my blog for so many years – Reflections on the Bangsa Moro – got lost forever. Fortunately, while surfing the web, I saw one of my popular posts in that blog archived here. Thank God, somebody had the foresight to archive my blogpost – a snapshot of the whole page(!) – in case it got lost! The blogpost – Maratabat and Maranaos  – was very popular and was cited by other sites, including WIKIPEDIA in its entries for Feud and Rido.  It was first published online on May 1, 2007 So here it is: May 1, 2007

Maratabat and the Maranaos

The concept of Maratabat is much talked about but only half-understood by most non-Maranaos and even by some Maranaos. First and foremost, maratabat is not about revenge killing, which is related to rido (blood feud).

Maratabat is about honor, “face”, dignity, sense of shame, sense of pride, ethics, etiquette, protocol, and self-esteem. It is an age-old guide to social relations, individual and collective action.

Maratabat is a code of conduct on how individuals should treat himself, his family, his relations, and other people. If he follows the rules, others are expected to reciprocate. But if he does not, then no one is obliged to treat him according to the maratabat norms.

If a leader or a datu does not treat his people well, then he cannot expect respect from the people. If a leader does not fight for his people, then he cannot expect his people to fight for him. Maratabat is a two-way affair.

In the same vein, if a father does not respect his adult children, then his adult children need not respect their father.

In fact, according to Maratabat, a man who abandons his family for no reason at all must be punished – by the children.


Related to the concept of Maratabat is the concept of Tindәg. I take this to mean moral and social stature. My mother, Hadja Sitti Rahma Yahya-Abbas, used to gauge people by their Tindәg. She usually praised to high heavens those who have mala-a- Tindәg or with high moral and social stature.

These people whom my mother heaped praises upon have similar characteristics. They usually have high self-esteem and confidence. They are gracious and diplomatic. Anybody who comes to their homes — be they rich or poor, powerful or powerless – are welcomed with open arms and sincerity. They are at home with fellow Moros and with strangers. More importantly, they are not intimidated by powerful non-Moro or foreign officials.

Gracious Host / Hostesses

The people whom my mother referred to as having  mala-a- Tindәg are gracious hosts / hostesses. People who come to their home, even uninvited ones, can expect a gracious greeting, small chat and some food. This sounds very petty but it is not.

I know many non-Moros who dislike people coming to their homes, especially when unexpected. Many Filipinos prefer guests to come only when invited so they can clean and beautify their houses beforehand and can prepare grand meals. But for unexpected guests, especially relatives, they can expect nothing more than soft drinks and a hello-and-goodbye from the hosts.

Intimidated By Foreigners / Powerful People

When one has maratabat, one cannot be intimidated by others because one has self-esteem. In the 1950s, Basilan City Mayor Leroy Brown was sued in Zamboanga. Brown was installed as Basilan’s Military Mayor by the Americans after WWII. In 1954 Magsaysay appointed him (Civilian) Mayor of Basilan. In his diary, my father, who was the presiding judge, wrote that he was visited first by Congressman (later Senator) Roseller Lim and then by Senator (later Vice President) Emmanuel Pelaez. They told him that President Magsaysay wanted a verdict favoring the American. My father told them that he could not believe that President Magsaysay would try to interfere in the judicial process. He later ruled against Mayor Brown.

Do we still have judges like my father? His maratabat forbade him to follow the dictates of the President of the Republic, the man who appointed him as judge. My father, Judge Macapanton Abbas, Sr. was the first Moro lawyer (admitted to the Philippine Bar in 1935), Fiscal and CFI Judge.

According to my mother, once in a party in Jolo, she was with her friends Tausug Princesses Tarhata Kiram and Inda Taas. With them was the young Tarhata Alonto – Lucman, the daughter of Senator Alauya Alonto and wife of my mother’s cousin, Congressman Rashid Lucman. When the foreign ambassadors came, the younger Tarhata stood up to meet them. But the older Tarhata told her to be seated. “Ambassadors come to Princesses, my dear, not the other way around,” the older Tarhata advised the younger Tarhata.

In 1980 or so, my mother and the above-mentioned Tarhata Alonto-Lucman were praying in the Masjid al-Haram, the Grand Mosque in Mecca during Eid-ul- Fitr. Before the prayers began, a woman came and asked a now much older Tarhata to vacate the place because her employer, a Saudi princess, was going to occupy the place. Former Governor Tarhata told the woman that she would not go anywhere because she was also a princess. The woman asked where she came from and then left. She asked some other people to leave their places instead.

After the prayers, the Saudi princess took out bags full of money and distributed them around. And the woman came back to ask for Tarhata’s sajada (prayer rug). She said it would please her much to have the prayer rug of a princess from Mindanao!

The two Tarhata’s actions were examples of maratabat. Even non-Maranaos practice them, too.

According to my uncle, Sultan Rashid Lucman, he once went to an office of a Saudi official in Mecca. While talking with him, the Saudi official put up one foot on his chair and acted in a disrespectful manner. Sultan Lucman, who was dressed formally, slapped the Saudi’s leg and told him to sit properly when talking to him.

Still in the 1980s, my second brother had a meeting with an American official at Manila Peninsula. As his habit, my brother went to the meeting dressed in coat and tie.  The American, on the other hand, came wearing shirt and jogging pants. My brother scolded him, told him never to wear a track suit in formal meetings and left. The American was so shocked; he immediately called my eldest brother in Jeddah and told him that he just got a scolding from our brother in Manila.

When Spain’s Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon and Sophia de Grecia came to the Philippines, my eldest sister, Hadja Potri Zorayda Abbas-Tamano, refused to attend the gala dinner for them because everyone was ordered to bow before the Spanish royalty. My sister did not want to bow to them. This is not only in accordance with Maratabat but also in accordance with Islam. Man/woman bows to no one but God.

Can you picture Christian Filipinos doing the things above — saying No to the President of the Republic, waiting for foreign ambassadors to come to them instead of going to the ambassadors, bawling out a Saudi  or American official for disrespectful sitting or dressing, refusing to give way to a Saudi princess or declining to meet the Spanish King and Queen?

When one has maratabat, one can never be subservient to others. In Saudi Arabia, the Saudis prefer to have Christian Filipinos as workers. They do not like Moros because Moros fight back unlike the Christian Filipinos who are so subservient and submissive.

I have seen with my own eyes how Filipino top officials got tongue-tied when faced with Americans or other Caucasian foreigners. On several occasions, I had to speak up for the Filipinos against foreigners bashing the Filipino character because all the Christian Filipinos around just clam up in front of a Filipino-bashing foreigner.

Sadly, there are now many Maranaos who clam up in front of Maranao- or Moro-bashing Filipinos or foreigners. I have seen and heard how Maranao “leaders” become meek and mild mannered in front of Philippine government officials. Sadly, these people have lost their maratabat.

Maratabat As Avenging Wrongs

Maratabat is known among non-Maranaos as simply vengeful killings. Maratabat is not the cause of vengeful killings. It is the other way around. Vengeful killings are caused by a breach of maratabat. Sometimes the breach can be caused by the silliest things.

When I was in grade school in Manila, we received a telegram from my sisters in Lanao urging our mother to go there immediately because it was “a matter of life and death.” My mother sent one of my brothers there. The “matter of life and death” was nothing but a rumor spread by my sisters’ friends who were envious of their fashionable dresses from Manila. My brother was able to determine the culprits – my sisters’ friends and classmates — who admitted their wrong deeds and apologized to my sisters. After the apology, they were back to being best of friends.

The Maranao society has mechanisms to end Rido or Blood Feuds. There are arbitrations. Even murders can be settled through discussion by the elders. The Maranao elders are quite good in settling disputes.

The maratabat code instructs people to behave courteously, and to respect a person’s age, rank, bloodline, abilities and dignity. If society follows maratabat, then there would be peace and order.

Today, however, many people respect only money or the 3 G’s – guns, goons and gold. Many Maranaos have imbibed the Filipino crab mentality. They think that if they can suck up to Filipino officials, they can have money and power, then they can already do what they want to do and to hell with maratabat. They can even buy royal titles.

Once, because they were in Manila, surrounded by Filipino officials and in a quasi-judicial setting, one Maranao lawyer forgot about maratabat and became very discourteous. He shouted, “And who is Abbas anyway?” Well, my brothers immediately cut him down to size. Thanks to the immediate intercession of the many people around, the cutting down to size was done only figuratively speaking. That incident could have started a rido between our clans. That fellow must have thought that Maratabat stays only in Lanao. It does not. Maratabat is in the heart of every self-respecting Maranao.

It is the breach of maratabat that causes blood feuds and breakdowns in peace and order in Maranao society.

Loss of Maratabat

When a relative told me that he begged and cried to his boss, who was also his relative, not to fire him, I felt so sad. I felt sad not because he lost his job, but because he lost his maratabat. I would rather drown in the lake than beg for a job. I would rather lose a job than lose my “face”.

Many years ago, I saw the Marawi City mayor’s vehicle, presumably with the mayor inside, stopped and inspected by the military at the entrance of Mindanao State University. I was stunned. This was his city and outsiders (sarwang tao) were lording over him.

Today, a Christian general is the President of Mindanao State University. Are there no competent and qualified Maranaos for the job? What does this say about the Maranaos’ maratabat?

Leaders with Maratabat

When they were young, my father, Datu Macapanton Abbas, Sr. together with his best friends Datu Domocao Alonto, Datu Duma Sinsuat, Datu Salipada Pendatun, Sultan Ombra Amilbangsa and a couple others called themselves the Knights of Muhammad. They vowed to serve, protect and promote the interests of the Moro people.

From his diary, I realized how different the Moro leaders were from what the Moro leaders are now. Before, they were in constant contact with each other. And they always thought about the interests of Islam and the Moro people. They were happy if one gets elected or appointed or sent as delegate to foreign shores. And they bowed down to no one. They were not “tutas” (lapdogs) of the powers-that-be.

In the late 50s, they began to see that the Philippine “nation-state project” was not going well for the Moros. Amilbangsa filed a bill in Congress for the separation of the Sultanate of Sulu from the rest of the Philippines.

My father helped in the capture of Kamlon, whose rebellion cost the government millions of pesos and many lives including the crack Nenita unit of the Philippine Constabulary. While he found Kamlon guilty and gave him the maximum sentence (my father was a stickler for legal technicalities), he recommended that Kamlon be given amnesty as promised by the government. The government reneged on their promise although later Kamlon’s death sentence was commuted to life sentence. Kamlon stayed in jail until President Marcos pardoned him many years later.

After the Jabidah Massacre, the Moro leaders knew that the Moros needed to rise up or be forever doomed. Unfortunately, my father and Amilbangsa had already passed away. But the others created what eventually became the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Alonto’s brother-in-law, Sultan Rashid Lucman fathered the modern-day Bangsa Moro revolution. Through primarily his efforts, 90 Moro cadres were sent to Sabah for military training. The so-called Top 90 became the core of the MNLF.

Alonto founded the Ansar el-Islam. Later Lucman and Pendatun teamed up with my eldest brother, Macapanton Abbas, Jr. to form the Bangsa Moro Liberation Organization (BMLO). Datu Duma died in the 1970s. He was a delegate to the 1971 Constitutional Convention.

These leaders had maratabat. They are now all gone. Can others replace them?

In fine, Maratabat is not about killing people for petty reasons. It is living in a courteous, respectful, ordered and civilized society. It can also be avenging wrongs. It is about self-determination. It is above all, about Freedom. Freedom from want (family, clan and society provides for one’s needs), Freedom from fear (family, clan, society provides for one’s physical protection), Freedom of speech and assembly to seek redress from grievances (ad hoc arbitration committees composed of elders from both clans), and Freedom of expression (Maranaos love oratory, public speaking, lyrical poems (bayoks), story-telling, songs, dances and artistic designs).


Datu Jamal Ashley Yahya Abbas


  1. salam alaikum,your site is very informative, for muslims and non-muslims, keep it up. may allah reward you the best. did you read the swish of kris by vic hurley. it is very informative. i embrace islam many years back, i love the bangsamoro for they are the truest patriot of this islands and defender of faith. you and your ancestors have a share for my islam because you hold tight to it until it reached me! salam.

    Comment by dipatuan — December 28, 2008 @ 9:06 am

  2. Dipatuan,

    Assalammu ‘aleikum. I am glad you find this blog informative. I am especially glad that you have embraced Islam. Yes, I have read Hurley’s book. It is quite good.

    May 2009 be a great year for you and your faith.


    Comment by jamalashley — December 30, 2008 @ 4:08 pm

  3. Congratulations to you Datu Jamal Ashley Yahya Abbas for this very informative blog. I came across your website when I browsed through “The Ruthless Political Entrepreneurs of Muslim Mindanao by Pancho Lara”. Mr. Benru Z. Martinez was very helpful in posting your website in his comments. My curiousity was triggered in wanting to understand the (reason/cause) behind the so-called “Maguindanao massacre”. Keep it up!

    Comment by Jean Marte — November 26, 2009 @ 2:43 pm

  4. Humbleness or Humility is better than Maratabat as Jesus said:“But to you who are listening I say: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you. If someone slaps you on one cheek, turn the other also. If someone takes your coat, do not withhold your shirt. Give to everyone who asks you, and if anyone takes what belongs to you, do not demand it back. Do to others as you would have them do to you.

    Comment by Batangas Crusader — November 27, 2009 @ 2:15 pm

  5. very nice blog, it was an additional knowledge to us young Meranao to know those facts..

    Comment by aljunarah abedin — July 23, 2011 @ 11:09 am

  6. I am a freelance writer and I am writing a thesis of my client about the insurgencies in Southern Philippines. Much as I would like to interpret it in my own way which the book cannot say in words unless you live with the community yourself. It is true that it’s hard to express the word “maratabat” but I guess this kind of attitude is like a “vendetta” among Muslims and I for one have witnessed this since I grew up in Marawi City myself. Don’t you think that this is one of the main reasons why the conflict between the Muslim and Christians in Mindanao still prevailed up to the present time? It is because it is hard to heal the old wounds of the past…..

    Comment by iznairah — October 27, 2011 @ 5:05 pm

  7. @iznairah, I thought I had already explained it in this post that Maratabat is NOT vendetta at all although for some people it may seem that way. That RIDO or bloodfeud caused by Maratabat is the main cause of the deteriorating peace and order in Mindanao and the real cause of the Moro Problem is the SPIN being disseminated by the Media, the government and their ally NGOs. This is to deviate the attention of the people to the REAL causes of the Bangsa Moro struggle.

    If you say that it is hard to heal the old wounds of the past is the cause of the conflict, then part of the blame lies among the Christians who simply could not let go of their old way of thinking about the Moros. Does that mean the Christian Filipinos also have Maratabat?

    BTW, you say that you are “writing a thesis of” your “client”? Are you saying that you have a client who is supposed to be writing a thesis for an academic degree; and you are doing it for him/her? Is that allowed? I used to teach and used to check and grade thesis papers.

    Comment by jamalashley — November 1, 2011 @ 10:51 am

  8. Very Nice! Something to do with Nationalism.

    Comment by abduljabbar — December 16, 2011 @ 2:25 pm

  9. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who had been conducting a little homework on this. — August 17, 2012 @ 2:30 pm

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