Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Short Answer Essay Rubric

Short Answer:
Pick one of the three major parts of the axial skeleton and describe that part in detail.

Skull: composed of 22 bones which form a protective unit for the brain. Divided into two regions: cranial, which contains the brain and facial, which are the bones that support the face. At the base of the cranium is the occipital bone, which has a large hole called the foramen magnum through which the spinal cord runs.

Spine: made up of irregular bones which have spines, processes, and large fossa in the middle for the spinal cord to travel through. Has different regions (C#s).

Rib cage: consists of the 12 thoracic vertebrae, the 24 ribs, and the sternum. The ribs are flat bones. There are seven pairs of true ribs, which are attached directly to the sternum via cartilage. The other five pairs are called false ribs, three of which are connected to the sternum by cartilage above the ends of the ribs, and two of which are not connected to the sternum at all (floating ribs).

2 6) The area that contains glassy hyaline cartilage that provides a smooth slippery surface which decreases friction is indicated by letter __________. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 135-137 Fill in the blank or provide a short answer: 7) Blood cell formation is called __________. Answer: hematopoiesis Diff: 1 Page Ref: 135 8) __________ are giant cells that destroy bone. Answer: Osteoclasts Diff: 1 Page Ref: 140 9) Cube-shaped bones that contain mostly spongy bone are called __________ bones. Answer: short Diff: 1 Page Ref: 135 10) The disease in children whose diets lack calcium or vitamin D, where the bones fail to calcify, is called __________. Answer: rickets Diff: 1 Page Ref: 142 11) A round or oval hole through a bone, which contains blood vessels and/or nerves, is called a __________. Answer: foramen Diff: 1 Page Ref: 138 12) A large rounded projection on a bone is called a __________. Answer: tuberosity Diff: 1 Page Ref: 138 13) A fracture where the bone breaks cleanly but does not penetrate the skin is termed a __________ fracture. Answer: simple or closed Diff: 1 Page Ref: 142 14) An increase in bone diameter is called __________ growth. Answer: appositional Diff: 1 Page Ref: 140 15) The only freely movable bone in the skull is the __________. Answer: mandible Diff: 2 Page Ref: 149 16) The part of the ethmoid bone that contains holey areas with fibers that carry impulses from the olfactory receptors of the nose to the brain is the __________. Answer: cribriform plate Diff: 2 Page Ref: 148

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