The Benefits of Animal Cloning
- Length: 2001 words (5.7 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
The Benefits of Animal Cloning
Put yourself into the body of someone who is need of a vital organ. You are on a waiting list, but who knows when you will receive this precious organ. The doctor says the chances of receiving an organ donor are slim because of your rare genetic make-up. The thought of praying for another human to die, just so you can live, seems selfish, but today, the only way to receive an organ is from the death, or the chance of death, of another human being. Even then, the donor may not match.
Now imagine it is the year 2007, and you are in dire need of a heart. The doctors do several tests to determine your genetic make-up, so they can find the right animal to match your needs. After replacing your heart with a pig heart, you recover and go on with everyday life. No one had to die, and you received your heart. With today's technology, this, and more human benefits, will be made possible with animal cloning.
The process of cloning is very complicated and involves making a genetically identical organism through non-sexual means (Olson). There are different ways to produce a clone, but one of the most common procedures is carried out by cell nuclear replacement. This procedure is often used because it is easier to target specific genes, so the DNA strands can be altered (Olson). In this procedure, the donor egg and a somatic cell from the animal are used to be cloned. The nucleus, which contains the genetic material, is removed from the donor egg and replaced with the nucleus from the cell of the animal to be cloned. "This creates a cloned embryo, which is then stimulated to begin dividing" (Centre).
Animal cloning controversies rose after 1997 when Ian Wilmut cloned the first mammal (sheep), named Dolly, from an adult cell (Wilmut, 21). Since the first cloned mammal, scientists have worked to find a practical application for cloning that will produce advances for human diseases. In some inherited disorders, such as hemophilia, cystic fibrosis and emphysema, the only way to treat such patients is through therapeutic proteins, which are obtained through the milk of an animal (Straight). These animals carry a certain protein that is secreted in their milk or blood, which is then harvested and purified for use (Nagal). Drugs made from these proteins are extremely scarce and expensive.
How to Cite this Page
|Benefits of Cloning Essay - Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through the use of a DNA sample. After the first cloned sheep dolly was created, many people were keen in knowing more about cloning and its benefit to society. Additionally, many of us want to know the pros and con the disadvantages and possible risks it may have on society and mankind. Most importantly, there are three types of cloning, therapeutic, reproductive, and embryonic cloning. These types of cloning are all ways of scientists trying to find ways to produce a living organism or organs.... [tags: Cloning]||726 words|
| The Benefits of Cloning Essays - ... Cloning techniques could be conjoined with genetic engineering to cure genetic illnesses. For example, couples who want to have healthy babies with no genetic illnesses could first make an embryo through in vitro fertilization. The embryo would then be eliminated for the genetic anomaly. Stem cells from the embryo would be taken, and a genetic engineering technics would be used to confirm the genetic anomaly. These facts demonstrate that cloning will become an indispensable part of people’s lives in the future because it is simply the best way to eradicate genetic diseases and to get rid of some other health problems.... [tags: dna, dolly, diseases]|
:: 8 Works Cited
| Two of Us: Cloning Essay - Have you ever wondered what it would be like if you had twin or even if you had a clone. If you had an illness like diabetes, have you ever wondered what it would be like if you did not. Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. The first successful clone was in 1997 when scientist Edinburgh cloned Dolly the sheep. She was the first animal to be cloned with an adult somatic cell by using the process of nuclear transfer. She was born on July 5 1996, lived to the age of six and died after being diagnosed with lung disease called Jaagsiekte.... [tags: Cloning]|
:: 11 Works Cited
|The Benefits of Cloning Essay - The Advantages of Cloning People often question whether or not cloning is morally acceptable in our society, and also if it is worth all the money that we spend on research for cloning. It is hard to believe that not to long ago many people believed that joining a sperm and an egg in a test tube was considered to be morally wrong. It is now used by millions of doctors around the world. Cloning is at the beginning stages of being considered morally unacceptable and will soon move to be just like in-vitro fertilization. Soon everyone will understand the benefits of cloning in agriculture, medicine, and social parenthood. It is quite obvious that cloning has many soci... [tags: Cloning Argumentative Persuasive Argument]||1061 words|
|Essay on The Benefits of Cloning Research - The Benefits of Cloning Research “To be or not to be…” In the last fifty years new forms of technology have been the center of attention for every human being. It seems that every day scientists come up with some new, perhaps even controversial, and exciting ways to improve the quality of life. These new technologies affect every aspect of life, as we know it. One such technology is the research being done in the area of cloning. Cloning is the production of one or more cells, individual plants, or animals that are genetically identical to another cell, plant or animal.... [tags: Cloning and Stem Cell Research]||1464 words|
|Essay on Britain Needs Human Cloning - “Human cloning will take place, and it will take place in my lifetime. And I don't fear it at all - I welcome it. I think it's right and proper that we continue this kind of inquiry.” (Tom Harkin) Imagine a world where there was no fear of diseases or infertility. A world where parents could choose and pick the desired traits they would like to see in their children. The human cloning process is slowly but surely developing to become an official process worldwide, to provide benefits to our species.... [tags: HFEA, reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning]||1234 words|
|Human Cloning Essay - Human Cloning Human Cloning comes with two dangerous processes, reproductive cloning (the creating of a new organism) and the therapeutic cloning (the creation of a new tissues or “other biological products”) which affects the ethics of human society. Scientists perceive cloning benefits all men and women, while religious leaders stress the idea of cloning to be an unethical process. Although human cloning serves as an aid to the children and parents with conflicts, cloning is completely unacceptable to convey human life as a product.... [tags: Ethical Issues, Cloning]||1030 words|
|Essay about Genetic Engineering and Genetic Cloning - A controversial issue is the possible application of new techniques in genetic engineering to produce human clones. Up until now genetic engineering and cloning has been used to clone plants, unicellular organisms, amphibians and simple mammals. This has led to significant advances in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Newer techniques in genetic engineering have enabled scientists to clone more complex mammals and opened up the possibility of cloning humans. Although there are many potential benefits to this technology, the prospect of cloning humans has raised many practical, ethical and religious dilemmas that are currently being debated by society.... [tags: Cloning Essays]||2185 words|
|Animal Cloning Debate Essay - Animal Cloning Debate A clone is a genetic copy of another living organism –animal, plant or human. Animal cloning is a widely discussed issue in our society today. The question now is whether the Australian government should ban animal cloning. Many opinions are generated from this subject, such as the justifiability of cloning, and how far it should go. Religious views are prevalent, so too are numerous ethical concerns. The issue of whether or not the government should ban cloning has gained progressive attention, as the science of animal cloning is further perfected.... [tags: Papers]||1039 words|
|Essay on Cloning: Many Questions and Few Answers - Cloning: Many Questions and Few Answers The birth of Dolly was announced by Ian Wilmut's team from Roslin Institute in February 1997. There is actually nothing radically new in the way Dolly was made, since lower vertebrates, such as frogs, had been cloned in 1968 by John Gurdon of Cambridge University. The term 'clone' originates from the Greek word 'klwn', meaning 'twig', because whenever we divide an overgrown shrub or successfully cultivate a houseplant cutting, cloning has occurred. Nuclear transfer technology was used in which a donor's udder cell, a nucleus with the genome intact, was fused with an unfertilised egg cell.... [tags: Cloning Essays]||369 words|
Animal Cloning Benefits Practical Application Ian Wilmut Donor Organism Hemophilia Match
Recently, researchers have been able to transfer human genes that produce useful proteins into sheep and cows, which will then be produced in the milk of the animals ("Medical Uses.."). With the ability to clone, scientists will be able to genetically engineer animals for a particular protein and then mass-produce the proteins. In addition, cloned animals can be used to obtain a greater understanding for diseases and other mysteries of life. Researchers will be able to create better models of diseases with animal cloning, which will further progress in understanding and possibly treating such diseases (Nagal).
This research has been delayed by the ethical concerns of using animal cloning as a benefit for human needs. Some people feel as though using animal cloning to cure diseases is cruel to animals, and are mainly a potential moneymaker. Dr. Donald Bruce states in a press release concerning animal cloning, "Commercial convenience is an insufficient justification for this intervention-a step too far in commodifying animals. This represents a violation at a very fundamental level of the integrity of the animal when all researchers and consumers see are dollar signs" (Bruce). Even though Dr. Donald clearly states how he feels and brings about a good point, he needs to realize the limited context of the production of proteins in the milk of genetically modified animals. Researchers' primary intention is to help cure diseases when natural methods do not work, not to act in harsh manners toward the animals, or to make a profit.
Just as genetically altered animals are beneficial to curing human diseases, transgenic animal cloning can also play a role in benefiting humans in the future. Transgenic is "an animal in which there has been deliberate modification of its genome genetic makeup of an organisms responsible for inherited characteristics" (Margawati). Transgenic animals can benefit agriculture, production of medicine, and industry.
Farmers have always used selective breeding to produce animals that exhibit desirable traits. Some examples of this are a swine with high muscle mass, cows producing more milk with less lactose, and sheep that grow more wool. In the past, farmers would use growth hormones to promote such qualities. This became problematic when residue of the hormones remained in the meat, leaving it with a foul taste (Margawati). When researchers began to clone transgenic animals, it became possible to develop certain traits in animals, which increased the quality of their yield. When a farmer would like to raise the standards of a herd, the breeding process is very slow and sometimes incomes can decrease (Wilmut, 23). Many times when relying on sexual breeding alone to mass-produce these animals, there are chances of breeding out the desired traits (Freudenrich). Transgenic animal cloning will result in higher quality meats and dairies without the use of artificial hormones, which, in the end, can further harm humans.
Several farmers disagree with this method in risk of narrowing down the genetic gene pool. Many farmers go by the fundamental rules of selective breeding; one must maintain a high level of genetic variation, or there may be problems from inbreeding (Bruce). This raises questions of possible side effects of inbreeding. According to Jeffrey Rushen, who is a researcher at Dairy and Swine Research and Development, "...there remains no evidence to judge whether or not inbreeding leads to an increased incidence of lameness, or side effects." The chances of inbreeding can easily be avoided by staying away from closely related livestock. In the end, the chances of producing a higher quality of yield (i.e. additional milk, higher quality meat) are more likely than running into problems of narrowing down gene pools.
Along with those who believe that transgenic animal cloning will narrow down gene pools and become problematic, there are also those who believe that animal cloning is an unnatural method, and technological inventions are going too far to remain in tune with what we perceive as natural (Bruce & Freudenrich). This is one of the arguments against researchers who are trying to use animal cloning to increase production of livestock. In the United States, the world's premier meat-eating country, per-capita consumption is more than 2 kilograms a week and up to 112 kilograms a year. In today's economy, many people have given up in raising livestock because of the lifestyle and low profits. If this trend continues, there will be a massive decrease in meat production (During). Animal cloning enables farmers to produce increased numbers of herds with desirable qualities faster than through sexual reproduction methods (Bruce). Surely, the people who believe that animal cloning is unnatural will think differently when cloned animals are all that are left as a meat source.
In the same manner, "more than 40,000 American are on a waiting list in need of human organs"; one third to one-half will die before a matching organ can be found" (Tanne). The chances of receiving such organs are rare, since the only way one can receive a heart or lung is if another human dies. Since there is a worldwide shortage of donated human organs for transplants, researchers have opted for a new alternative for organs, animals. Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues or cells from one species to another. Researches have concentrated on the use of pigs, being that they are inexpensive, plentiful, easy to breed, and can be genetically manipulated to reduce the possibility and severity of transplant rejection ("Medical Uses..."). Pig heart valves are already used to repair human hearts after a tanning process renders the valves immunologically inert (Tanne). Pigs do have appealing characteristics to humans, but the fact is that humans and pigs are genetically different. Researchers have developed strategies to overcome the rejection of pig organs, which is where animal cloning comes a part of the picture ("Medical Uses..").
Because humans and pigs do not have the exact genetic make-up, researchers have used animal cloning to produce transgenic pigs suitable for xenotransplantation. With this procedure, "new genes are introduced into the DNA of the pig genes during the cloning process, and the other genes are taken out so they are no longer functional" (Tanne). With this knowledge, researchers can remove certain pathogens that cause rejection by humans, which will enable the production of genetically altered pigs. This could offer unlimited supply of organs, saving many innocent lives. Xenotransplantation can also serve as a temporary replacement for humans on a waiting list ("Medical Uses...").
This controversial issue raises many ethical concerns among society. One intuition that runs deep with various religious groups is the concern of this issue being morally acceptable. Some people feel very strongly about altering animals through the use of genetic techniques and that doing so is much like 'playing God'(Bruce). There are people who believe that humans do not have the right to treat animals with such cruelty, and killing animals to benefit humans is viewed as unsympathetic. Animal cloning and xenotransplanation have nothing to do with going against God and trying to play his role in life. Researchers are simply trying to find a more effective way to benefit human medical needs, and if that means doing a little harm to animals, then those steps need to be taken. If these people believe that God is the creator and that he did not want animals to be cloned, then he would not have granted us with the technology and research to do so.
The large number of benefits animal cloning has for humans overrule the ethical concerns. Many problems, such as finding cures for diseases, having less desirable qualities of livestock, scarcity of food (meat, milk), and shortage of human organ donors, can worsen as the world becomes more populated and faults are discovered every day. Animal cloning will help solve many of these problems, if people would allow research to continue.
Now, imagine a doctor telling you that your little girl's heart has failed, and that she is in need of an emergency transplant, or she will die. Since she has a rare blood type, the chances of receiving a heart soon are very unlikely. The doctor gives you the option of xenotransplanation and without hesitating, you give the doctor your consent in going through with the surgery. As a result of extensive research on animal cloning and going against ethical concerns, your little girl's life is saved and she is able to live a normal, healthy lifestyle.
Bruce, Dr.Donald. "Cloning, Ethics and Animal Welfare SRT Comment on Farm Animal
Welfare Council Report." Society, Religion and Technology Project.
15 December 1998. 22 October 2003.
Animal Cloning Essay
2148 WordsJul 26th, 20109 Pages
Final Essay: Multiple Sources, Research Based Argumentative Essay
Animal Cloning: Beneficial to Humans
Today’s technology develops so quickly that many impossible things become true; the example is cloning technology. Cloning is a process used to create an exact copy of a mammal by using the complete genetic material of a regular body cell. Different from the common propagate, cloning needs only one cell and without sex. Cloning, as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue in society but cloning can have several positive effects for the well being of society. Many people in society believe that scientists should develop a clone human but many people and especially the government are against human cloning. Hundreds of…show more content…
Farmers are using different technology for breeding. They used selective breeding to produce animals that exhibit desirable traits and they get more benefit from it. For example, using breeding techniques farmers makes cows which produce more milk with less lactose, and sheep which produce more wool. Farmers accept this new selective breeding technology because in the past, farmers would use growth hormones to promote such qualities. This became problematic when residue of the hormones remained in the meat, leaving it with a foul taste. When researchers began to clone transgenic animals, it became possible to develop certain traits in animals, which increased the quality of their yield. When a farmer would like to raise the standards of a herd, the breeding process is very slow and sometimes incomes can decrease (Wilmut 23). Many times when relying on sexual breeding alone to mass-produce these animals, there are chances of breeding out the desired traits (Freudenrich). Transgenic animal cloning will result in higher quality meats and dairies without the use of artificial hormones. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration released in January 2008 concluded “edible products from normal, healthy clones or their progeny do not appear to pose increased food consumption risks relative to comparable products from conventional animals.” After 2008, US Food and Drug Administrative agree to use