This guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) and provides only selected citation examples for commonly used sources, and of notes/bibliography style only. For more detailed information, directly consult a print copy or online version of the style manual available at the SFU Library and at the SFU Bookstore.
Chicago style is sometimes referred to as Turabian style, which is a modified version of Chicago style, and which is outlined in Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7thed. [print].
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Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software.
General notes on Chicago Style
Chicago style outlines two distinct citation styles (14.2):
- Notes/bibliography style, also known as "Humanities style." Sources are cited through footnotes (or endnotes) and a bibliography
- Author/date style, also known as "Scientific/Social Sciences style." Sources are cited through parenthetical author/date references in the text and a reference list
Please note that this guide covers only the Humanities style.
It is recommended practice, but not absolutely necessary, to cite your sources in both the notes and the bibliography. The practice of including both notes and a bibliography is still common practice amongst humanities scholars, so make sure to consult your instructor.
If you choose not to include a bibliography in your paper or choose to create only a partial list of references, you must provide full details of the sources you cited in your notes. (The first time you mention a work in the notes, you must provide full publication details. All subsequent notes of the same work can be written in short form.) If, on the other hand, your bibliography includes all sources cited in the notes, you need not provide full publication details in the notes since a reader can consult the bibliography (14.14).
Your paper must be double-spaced. It is conventional to single-space footnotes and bibliographies, leaving a blank line between entries.
Every page of the paper must be assigned a page number, including blank pages, appendices, and bibliography. Arabic numerals are centered or flush right at the top of the page.
You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words (13.1 - 13.6). You need to cite:
- to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay
- to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same sources
A citation must appear in two places in your essay (14.19):
- in the notes (footnotes or endnotes)
- in the bibliography (at the end of your paper)
To introduce other people's ideas in text, use the following examples:
Use Webster's Third New International Dictionary [print] and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary [print] for standard spelling references for all Chicago citations (7.1).
You are responsible for the accuracy of all information in your notes and bibliography (13.6).
References in text: footnotes and endnotes (14.14 - 14.60)
In Chicago notes/bibliography style, footnotes or endnotes are used to cite quotes, paraphrases, and other in-text references (14.14-14.60).
- Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page in the research paper
- Endnotes are numbered citations listed at the end of the research paper
To cite a source, a small superscript (raised) number is placed after each in-text reference. Throughout the paper, these in-text references are numbered in sequential order (14.20). For example:
Each numbered reference then corresponds to a numbered citation in the footnote or endnote that provides author, date, and publication information for each source (14.14). The numbers in the notes are full size, not raised, and followed by a period.
Citations in notes are single-spaced (unless otherwise instructed), but there is a double space between entries. The first line is indented.
References in text: shortened citations (14.108, 14.111, 14.275, 14.29-14.36)
The first in-text reference to a given source must be cited in full with the name of the author/s, title of the work, place of publication, name of the publisher, and page number/s of the cited reference (14.19-14.20). For example:
Subsequent notes for sources that have already been cited may be shortened to the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the appropriate page reference (14.25). For example:
Immediately following notes that refer to the same source may be shortened even further to "ibid." (short for 'ibidem' - the Latin word for "in the same place") and the appropriate page reference (14.34). For example:
Bibliography (14.19 - 14.23; 14.61 - 14.71)
The list of sources at the end of the paper or at the end of the chapter is called the bibliography. This list must include all references cited in the text of your paper (14.62 - 14.71).
In the bibliography, entries are listed in alphabetical order according to the authors' last names. If no author or editor is provided, the work's title may be used instead (14.65).
Entries are double-spaced, but single-spacing is used within each entry. The second and subsequent lines are indented.
When the bibliography includes multiple entries by the same author listed together, a 3-em dash may be used to replace the author's name after the first entry (14.67 - 14.70). For example:
For more information about how to format your bibliography, see sections 14.61 - 14.71.
Common abbreviations (10.1 - 10.69)
When books have editors, translators, or compilers, the following abbreviations are used (10.42, 14.72 - 14.84):
- one editor - ed. / two or more editors - eds.
- translators - trans.
- one compiler - comp. / two or more compilers - comps.
For editions of books other than the first, the edition number (or description) and the abbreviation "ed." are placed after the book's title in all notes and bibliographic citations (14.112 - 14.115). For example:
- second edition - 2nd ed.
- revised edition - rev. ed.
Chicago Manual of Style
Each citation style handles this situation a little bit differently! Here are specific examples of how it works in the three major citation styles:
Per the APA Manual (6th edition), p. 178:
For In-Text Citations:
Arrange two or more works by the same authors (in the same order) by year of publication. Place in-press citations last. Give the authors’ surnames once; for each subsequent work, give only the date.
Training materials are available (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2001, 2003)
Past research (Gogel, 1990, 2006, in press)
Identify works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same author) with the same publication date by the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth, after the year; repeat the year. The suffixes are assigned in the reference list, where these kinds of references are ordered alphabetically by title (of the article, chapter or complete work).
Several studies (Derryberry & Reed, 2005a, 2005b, in press-a; Rothbart, 2003a, 2003b)
For additional examples and tips on citing multiple sources by the same author in APA Style, check out the APA Style Blog’s posts on How to Cite Multiple Works by the Same Author in a Compilation and How to Cite Articles with the Same Authors and Same Year.
In the Works Cited (Per the MLA Handbook (8th edition), p. 113: To cite two or more works by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. Thereafter, in place of the name, type three hyphens, followed by a period and the title. The three hyphens stand for exactly the same name as in the preceding entry. This sort of label does not affect the order in which the entries appear; works listed under the same name are alphabetized by title.
For in-text citations (Per the MLA Handbook (8th edition), p. 55: Including only the author name and page number in a parenthetical citation is insufficient if more than one work appears under that author's name in the work cited list. In that case, include a shortened version of the source's title.
(Haynes, Noah's Curse 84)
(Haynes, The Last Segregated Hour 57)
Works cited (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):
Haynes, Stephen R. Noah's Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery. Oxford University Press, 2007.
---. The Last Segregated Hour: The Memphis Kneel-Ins and the Campaign for Southern Church Desegregation. Oxford University Press, 2012.
For additional examples and tips on multiple sources by the same author in MLA Style, check out the MLA Style Center's "How do I distinguish works by an author that have the same title?"
Per the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition):
Notes and Bibliography method (see section 14.68: The 3-em dash for one repeated name for caveats please refer to 14.67).
For successive entries [in a bibliography] by the same author, editor, translator, or compiler, a 3-em dash (followed by a period or comma, depending on the presence of an abbreviation such as ed.) replaces the name after the first appearance.
For example: (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):
Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
———. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New Yrok: Penguin Press, 2008.
In a bibliography, titles by the same author are normally listed alphabetically.
Author-Date References (see section 15.18: Chronological order for repeated names in a reference list)
For successive entries by the same author(s), translator(s), editor(s), or compiler(s), a 3-em dash replaces the name(s) after the first appearance. The entries are arranged chronologically by year of publication in ascending order, not alphabetized by title. Undated works designated n.d. or forthcoming follow all dated works.
For example: (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):
Schuman, Howard, and Jacqueline Scott. 1987. “Problems in the Use of Survey Questions to Measure Public Opinion.” Science 236:957-59.
———. 1989. “Generations and Collective Memories.” American Sociological Review 54:359-81.
Two or more works by the same author in the same year must be differentiated by the addition of a, b, and so forth (regardless of whether they were authored, edited, compiled or translated), and are listed alphabetically by title. Text citations consist of author and year plus letter.
Fogel, Robert William. 2004a. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
———. 2004b. ”Technophysio Evolution and the Measurement of Economic Growth.” Journal of Evolutionary Economics 14 (2): 217-21. Doi:10.1007/s00191-004-0188-x.
(Fogel 2004b, 218)
(Fogel 2004a, 45-46)
For additional information on citing multiple sources by the same author in Chicago style, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style.
For further help please contact the Wolak Learning Center at 603.645.9606 (UC Students) and Online Writing Center at 866.721.1662 (Online/COCE Students) for additional information.
You may also want to consider:
This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite multiple sources by the same author in your class assignments and projects.
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
The Modern Language Association of America. (2016). MLA Handbook. New York: Modern Language Association of America.
University of Chicago. (2017). The Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.