Gliese 876 B Bibliography

Gliese 876 b is an exoplanetorbiting the red dwarfGliese 876. It completes one orbit in approximately 61 days. Discovered in June 1998, Gliese 876 b was the first planet to be discovered orbiting a red dwarf.

Observation history[edit]

Gliese 876 b was discovered independently by two different teams, one led by Geoffrey Marcy (with data from Keck Observatory and Lick Observatory)[4] and the other by Xavier Delfosse (at Geneva Observatory).[5] Like the majority of known extrasolar planets, it was discovered by detecting variations in its star's radial velocity as a result of the planet's gravity. This was done by making sensitive measurements of the Doppler shift of the spectral lines of Gliese 876. It was the first discovered of four known planets in the Gliese 876 system.[3][4][5][6][7]

Characteristics[edit]

Mass, radius, and temperature[edit]

JupiterGliese 876 b

Given the planet's high mass, it is likely that Gliese 876 b is a gas giant with no solid surface. Since the planet has only been detected indirectly through its gravitational effects on the star, properties such as its radius, composition, and temperature are unknown. Assuming a composition similar to Jupiter and an environment close to chemical equilibrium, it is predicted that the atmosphere of Gliese 876 b is cloudless, though cooler regions of the planet may be able to form water clouds.[8]

A limitation of the radial velocity method used to detect Gliese 876 b is that only a lower limit on the planet's mass can be obtained. This lower limit is around 1.93 times the mass of Jupiter.[6] The true mass depends on the inclination of the orbit, which in general is unknown. However, because Gliese 876 is only 15 light years from Earth Benedict et al. (2002) were able to use one of the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope to detect the astrometric wobble created by Gliese 876 b.[2] This constituted the first unambiguous astrometric detection of an extrasolar planet.[3] Their analysis suggested that the orbital inclination is 84°±6° (close to edge-on).[2] In the case of Gliese 876 b, modelling the planet-planet interactions from the Laplace resonance shows that the actual inclination of the orbit is 59°, resulting in a true mass of 2.2756 times the mass of Jupiter.[3]

Because it is only 2 times more massive than Jupiter, it should be slightly larger than it, with a radius of around 1.2 J.

The equilibrium temperature of Gliese 876 b, is estimated to be around 194 K (−79 °C; −110 °F).[9]

This planet, like c and e, has likely migrated inward.[10]

Host star[edit]

The planet orbits a (M-type) star named Gliese 876. The star has a mass of 0.33 and a radius of around 0.36 . It has a surface temperature of 3350 K and is 2.55 billion years old. In comparison, the Sun is about 4.6 billion years old[11] and has a surface temperature of 5778 K.[12]

Orbit[edit]

Gliese 876 b is in a 1:2:4 Laplace resonance with the inner planet Gliese 876 c and the outer planet Gliese 876 e: in the time it takes planet e to complete one orbit, planet b completes two and planet c completes four. This is the second known example of a Laplace resonance, the first being Jupiter's moonsIo, Europa and Ganymede.[3] As a result, the orbital elements of the planets change fairly rapidly as they dynamically interact with one another.[13] The planet's orbit has a low eccentricity, similar to the planets in the Solar System. The semimajor axis of the orbit is only 0.208 AU, less than that of Mercury in the Solar System.[3] However Gliese 876 is such a faint star that this puts it in the outer part of the habitable zone.[14]

Future habitability[edit]

See also: Habitability of red dwarf systems and Habitability of natural satellites

Gliese 876 b currently lies beyond the outer edge of the habitable zone but because Gliese 876 is a slowly evolving main-sequence red dwarf its habitable zone is very slowly moving outwards and will continue to do so for trillions of years. Therefore, Gliese 876 b will, in trillions of years time, lie inside Gliese 876's habitable zone, as defined by the ability of an Earth-mass planet to retain liquid water at its surface, and remain there for at least 4.6 billion years.[15] While the prospects for life on a gas giant are unknown, large moons may be able to support a habitable environment. Models of tidal interactions between a hypothetical moon, the planet and the star suggest that large moons should be able to survive in orbit around Gliese 876 b for the lifetime of the system.[16] On the other hand, it is unclear whether such moons could form in the first place.[17] However, the large mass of the gas giant may make it more likely for larger moons to form.[citation needed]

For a stable orbit the ratio between the moon's orbital periodPs around its primary and that of the primary around its star Pp must be < 1/9, e.g. if a planet takes 90 days to orbit its star, the maximum stable orbit for a moon of that planet is less than 10 days.[18][19] Simulations suggest that a moon with an orbital period less than about 45 to 60 days will remain safely bound to a massive giant planet or brown dwarf that orbits 1 AU from a Sun-like star.[20] In the case of Gliese 876 b, the orbital period would have to be no greater than a week (7 days) in order to have a stable orbit.

Tidal effects could also allow the moon to sustain plate tectonics, which would cause volcanic activity to regulate the moon's temperature[21][22] and create a geodynamo effect which would give the satellite a strong magnetic field.[23]

To support an Earth-like atmosphere for about 4.6 billion years (the age of the Earth), the moon would have to have a Mars-like density and at least a mass of 0.07 .[24] One way to decrease loss from sputtering is for the moon to have a strong magnetic field that can deflect stellar wind and radiation belts. NASA's Galileo's measurements hints large moons can have magnetic fields; it found that Jupiter's moon Ganymede has its own magnetosphere, even though its mass is only 0.025 .[20]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

An artist's impression of Gliese 876 b as an enormous Jupiter-like planet with a hypothetical satellite system.
The orbits of the planets of Gliese 876. Gliese 876 b is the third planet from the star.
  1. ^Uncertainties in the planetary masses and semimajor axes do not take into account the uncertainty in the mass of the star.
  1. ^ abvan Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. Vizier catalog entry
  2. ^ abcdBenedict, G. F; et al. (2002). "A Mass for the Extrasolar Planet Gliese 876b Determined from Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor 3 Astrometry and High-Precision Radial Velocities". The Astrophysical Journal. 581 (2): L115–L118. arXiv:astro-ph/0212101. Bibcode:2002ApJ...581L.115B. doi:10.1086/346073. 
  3. ^ abcdefghijklmRivera, Eugenio J.; et al. (July 2010). "The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Uranus-mass Fourth Planet for GJ 876 in an Extrasolar Laplace Configuration". The Astrophysical Journal. 719 (1): 890–899. arXiv:1006.4244. Bibcode:2010ApJ...719..890R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/719/1/890. 
  4. ^ abcdMarcy, Geoffrey W.; et al. (1998). "A Planetary Companion to a Nearby M4 Dwarf, Gliese 876". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 505 (2): L147–L149. arXiv:astro-ph/9807307. Bibcode:1998ApJ...505L.147M. doi:10.1086/311623. 
  5. ^ abcdDelfosse, X.; et al. (1998). "The closest extrasolar planet. A giant planet around the M4 dwarf GL 876". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 338: L67–L70. arXiv:astro-ph/9808026. Bibcode:1998A&A...338L..67D. 
  6. ^ abRivera, Eugenio J.; et al. (2005). "A ~7.5 M Planet Orbiting the Nearby Star, GJ 876". The Astrophysical Journal. 634 (1): 625–640. arXiv:astro-ph/0510508. Bibcode:2005ApJ...634..625R. doi:10.1086/491669. 
  7. ^Marcy, Geoffrey W.; et al. (2001). "A Pair of Resonant Planets Orbiting GJ 876". The Astrophysical Journal. 556 (1): 296–301. Bibcode:2001ApJ...556..296M. doi:10.1086/321552. 
  8. ^Sudarsky, David; et al. (2003). "Theoretical Spectra and Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets". The Astrophysical Journal. 588 (2): 1121–1148. arXiv:astro-ph/0210216. Bibcode:2003ApJ...588.1121S. doi:10.1086/374331. 
  9. ^http://www.hpcf.upr.edu/~abel/phl/hec_plots/hec_orbit/hec_orbit_Gliese_876_b.png
  10. ^Gerlach, Enrico; Haghighipour, Nader (2012). "Can GJ 876 host four planets in resonance?". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 113: 35–47. arXiv:1202.5865. Bibcode:2012CeMDA.113...35G. doi:10.1007/s10569-012-9408-0. 
  11. ^Fraser Cain (16 September 2008). "How Old is the Sun?". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  12. ^Fraser Cain (September 15, 2008). "Temperature of the Sun". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  13. ^Butler, R. P.; et al. (2006). "Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets". The Astrophysical Journal. 646 (1): 505–522. arXiv:astro-ph/0607493. Bibcode:2006ApJ...646..505B. doi:10.1086/504701. 
  14. ^Jones, Barrie W.; et al. (2005). "Prospects for Habitable "Earths" in Known Exoplanetary Systems". The Astrophysical Journal. 622 (2): 1091–1101. arXiv:astro-ph/0503178. Bibcode:2005ApJ...622.1091J. doi:10.1086/428108. 
  15. ^Kasting, James F.; et al. (1993). "Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars"(PDF). Icarus. 101 (1): 108–128. Bibcode:1993Icar..101..108K. doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1010. PMID 11536936. 
  16. ^Barnes, Jason W.; O'Brien, D. P. (2002). "Stability of Satellites around Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets". The Astrophysical Journal. 575 (2): 1087–1093. arXiv:astro-ph/0205035. Bibcode:2002ApJ...575.1087B. doi:10.1086/341477.  (paper incorrectly refers to Gliese 876 b as GJ876c)
  17. ^Canup, Robin M.; Ward, William R. (2006). "A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets". Nature. 441 (7095): 834–839. Bibcode:2006Natur.441..834C. doi:10.1038/nature04860. PMID 16778883. 
  18. ^Kipping, David (2009). "Transit timing effects due to an exomoon". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 392: 181–189. arXiv:0810.2243. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.392..181K. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13999.x. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  19. ^Heller, R. (2012). "Exomoon habitability constrained by energy flux and orbital stability". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 545: L8. arXiv:1209.0050. Bibcode:2012A&A...545L...8H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220003. ISSN 0004-6361. 
  20. ^ abAndrew J. LePage. "Habitable Moons:What does it take for a moon — or any world — to support life?". SkyandTelescope.com. Retrieved 2011-07-11. 
  21. ^Glatzmaier, Gary A. "How Volcanoes Work – Volcano Climate Effects". Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  22. ^"Solar System Exploration: Io". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  23. ^Nave, R. "Magnetic Field of the Earth". Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  24. ^"In Search Of Habitable Moons". Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 2011-07-11. 

Planet GJ 876 b

Star

GJ 876

Other web-pages

Papers with primary data:

More data

Observability Predictor

Remarks

  • Circumstellar disk searched for at UKIRT and KECK but not found (Trilling et al. 1999, 2000)

Other web-pages

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2008 JARDINE M. & CAMERON A.
Astron. & Astrophys., 490, 843
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Planetary Migration in Resonance : The Question of the Eccentricities
2008 CRIDA A., SANDOR Z. & KLEY W.
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Extrasolar Giant Planets and X-ray Activity
2008 KASHYAP V., DRAKE J. & SAAR S.
ApJ., 687, 1339
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Optimal strategies of radial velocity observations in planet search surveys
2008 BALUEV R.
MNRAS, 389, 1375
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Spectroscopic parameters for 451 stars in the HARPS GTO planet search program. Stellar [Fe/H] and the frequency of exo-Neptunes
2008 SOUSA S., SANTOS N., MAYOR M., UDRY S., CASAGRANDE L., ISRAELIAN G., PEPE F., QUELOZ D. & MONTEIRO M.
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Further Constraints on the Presence of a Debris Disk in the Multiplanet System Gliese 876
2008 SHANKLAND et al.
Astron. J., 135, 2194
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The impact of nonthermal loss processes on planet masses from Neptunes to Jupiters
2007 LAMMER H., KHODACHENKO M., LICHTENEGGER H., KULIKOV Y. & WÜCHTERL G.
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2007 BUCCINO A., LEMARCHAND G. & MAUAS P.
Icarus, 192, 582
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2007 MANDELL A., RAYMOND S. & SIGURDSSON S.
ApJ., 660, 823
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Habitable Planet Formation in Extreme Planetary Systems: Systems with Multiple Stars and/or Multiple Planets
2007 HAGHIGHIPOUR N.
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2007 GRIEßMEIER J.-M., ZARKA P. & SPREEUW H.
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2007 VERAS D.
Cel. Mech. & Dyn. Astron.
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2007 MARCHI S.
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2007 CASTRO J. & HAGHIGHIPOUR N.
BAAS, 39, no 1, 090.03

M Stars as Targets for Terrestrial Exoplanet Searches And Biosignature Detection
2007 SCALO J., KALTENEGGER L., SEGURA A., FRIDLUND M., RIBAS I., KULIKOV N., GRENFELL J., RAUER H., ODERT P., LEITZINGER M., SELSIS F., KHODACHENKO M., EIROA C., KASTING J. & LAMMER H.
Astrobiology, 7, 85
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Planetary Formation Scenarios Revistied: Core-Accretion Versus Disk Instability
2007 MATSUO T., SHIBAI H., OOTSUBO T. & TAMURA M.
ApJ., 662, 1282
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The M Dwarf GJ 436 and its Neptune-Mass Planet
2007 MANESS H., MARCY G., FORD E., HAUSCHILDT P., STREVE A., BASRI G., BUTLER P. & VOGT S.
PASP, 119, 90
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M Dwarfs as Desirable Targets for Planet Search Surveys
2006 TANNER A.
BAAS, 38, no 3, #10.03
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Planetary Migration and Extrasolar Planets in the 2/1 Mean-Motion Resonance.
2006 BEAUGE C., FERRAZ-MELLO S. & MICHTCHENKO T.
MNRAS, 365, 1160
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Direct Metallicity Measurements of M Dwarf Planet Hosts
2006 BEAN J., BENEDICT F., ENDL M. & SNELDEN C.
BAAS, 37 no 4, [68.18]
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Kinematics of planet-host stars and their relation to dynamical streams in the solar neighbourhood
2006 ECUVILLON A., ISRAELIAN G., PONT F., SANTOS N. & MAYOR M.
Astron. & Astrophys., 461, 171
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On the stability of test particles in extrasolar multiple planet systems
2006 RIVERA E. & HAGHIGHIPOUR N.
MNRAS, 374, 599
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Metallicities of M Dwarf Planet Hosts from Spectral Synthesis
2006 BEAN J., BENEDICT F. & ENDL M.
ApJ. Letters, 653, L65
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Behavior of Apsidal Orientations in Planetary Systems
2006 BARNES R. & GREENBERG R.
ApJ. Letters, 652, L53
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On the Search for Transits of the Planets Orbiting Gl 876
2006 SHANKLAND P., RIVERA E., LAUGHLIN G., BLANK D., PRICE A., GARY B., BISSINGER R., RINGWALD F., WHITE G., HENRY G., McGEE P., WOLF A., CARTER B., LEE S., BIGGS J., MONARD B. & ASHLEY C.
ApJ., 653, 700
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Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets
2006 BUTLER P., WRIGHT J., MARCY G., FISCHER D., VOGT S., TINNEY Ch., JONES H., CARTER B., JOHNSON J., McCARTHY Ch. & PENNY A.
ApJ., 646, 505
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Effects of Secular Interactions in Extrasolar Planetary Systems
2006 ADAMS F. & LAUGHLIN G.
ApJ., 649, 992
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Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems
2006 RAGHAVAN D., HENRY T., MASON B., SUBASAVAGE J., JAO W.-C., BEAULIEU T. & HAMBLY N.
ApJ., 646, 523
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Gravitational Instabilities in Gaseous Protoplanetary Disks and Implications for Giant
2006 DURISSEN R., BOSS A., MAYER L., NELSON A., QUINN R. & RICE K.
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Habitability of known exoplanetary systems based on measured stellar properties
2006 JONES B., SLEEP P. & UNDERWOOD D.
ApJ., 649, 1010
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Rapid Formation of Gas Giant Planets around M Dwarf Stars
2006 BOSS A.
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What do Multiple Planet Systems Teach us about Planet Formation?
2006 FORD E.
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2006 SOTER S.
Astron. J., 132, 2513
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Dynamical evolution of extrasolar planetary systems
2005 ZHOU J.-L. & SUN Y.-S.
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Modeling the resonant planetary system GJ876.
2005 KLEY W., LEE M.-H., MURRAY N. & PEALE S.
Astron. & Astrophys., 437, 727
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Metallicity of M dwarfs I. A photometric calibration and impact on the mass-luminosity relation at the bottom of the main sequence
2005 BONFILS X., DELFOSSE X., UDRY S., SANTOS N., FORVEILLE T. & SEGRANSAN D.
Astron. & Astrophys., 442, 635
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Astrophysics in 2004
2005 TRIMBLE V. & ASCHWANDEN M.
PASP, 117, 311
paper

Extrasolar Planets Get Smaller and (Possibly) Harder
2005 IRION R.
Science, 308, 1727
paper

A ~ 7.5 Earth-Mass Planet Orbiting the Nearby Star, GJ 876
2005 RIVERA E., LISSAUER J., BUTLER P., MARCY G., VOGT S., FISCHER D., BROWN T.,LAUGHLIN G. & HENRY G.
ApJ., 634, 625
paper

Origin and Ubiquity of Short-Period Earth-like Planets: Evidence for the Sequential-Accretion Theory of Planet Formation
2005 ZHOU J., AARSETH S., LIN D. & NAGASAWA M.
ApJ. Letters, 631, L85
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Search for Radio Emissions From Extrasolar Planets at 150 MHz
2005 WINTERHALTER D., MAJID W., KUIPER T., CHANDRA I., LAZIO J., GUPTA Y., NAUDET C., ZARKA Ph., BRYDEN G. & GONZALEZ W.
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On the Ages of Exoplanet Host Stars
2005 SAFFE C., GOMEZ M. & CHAVERO C.
Astron. & Astrophys., 443, 609
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Resonances and stability of extra-solar planetary systems
2005 BEAUGE C., CALLEGARI N., FERRAZ-MELLO S. & MICHTCHENKO T.
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2005 BEAUGE C., CALLEGARI N., FERRAZ-MELLO S. & MICHTCHENKO T.
paper

Regularity of Extrasolar Planetary Systems and the Role of the Star Metallicity in the Formation of Planets (Review)
2004 KSANFOMALITY L.
Sol. Syst. Res., 38, 428
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The GJ 876 Planetary System -- A Progress Report.
2004 LAUGHLING G., BUTLER P., FISCHER D., MARCY G., VOGT S. & WOLF A.
ApJ.
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The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of ~14000 F and G dwarfs.
2004 NORDSTROM B., MAYOR M., ANDERSEN J., HOLMBERG J., PONT F., JORGENSEN B., OLSEN E., UDRY S. & MOWLAVI N.
Astron. & Astrophys., 419, 989
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The Librating Companions in HD 37124, HD 12661, HD 82943, 47 Uma and GJ 876: Alignment or Antialignment?
2003 JI J., LIU L., KINOSHITA H., ZHOU J., NAKAI H. & LI G.
ApJ. Letters, 591, L 57
paper

Modelling the high-eccentricity planetary three-body problem. Application to the GJ876 planetary system.
2003 BEAUGE C. & MICHTCHENKO T.
MNRAS, 341, 760
paper

Dynamical Evolution of Planets in Disks.
2003 KLEY W.
Proc. of IAU Colloquium 189, Astrophysical Tides
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Diversity and Origin of 2:1 Orbital Resonances in Extrasolar Planetary Systems.
2003 LEE M. & PEALE S.
BAAS, 35
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Dynamical Models of the Planets Orbiting the Star GJ 876 Subject to Doppler and Astrometric Constraints.
2003 RIVERA E. & LISSAUER J.
BAAS, 35, No4, #8.03
abstract

The dynamical simulations of the planets orbiting GJ 876.
2002 JI J., LI G. & LIU L., 2002
ApJ., 572, 1041
paper
erratum

Dynamical Models of the Resonant Pair of Planets Orbiting the Star GJ 876.
2002 RIVERA E. & LISSAUER J.
BAAS, 34, #9.03
abstract

Global dynamics of the Gliese 876 planetary system.
2002 GOZ'DZIEWSKI K. & BOIS E.
MNRAS, 332, 839
paper

The Orbits of Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zones of Known Exoplanetary Systems.
2002 JONES B. & SLEEP P.
paper

Extrasolar Planets and Mean-Motion Resonances.
2002 LEE M. & PEALE S.
paper

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